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Artificial Perspiration

Artificial Perspiration

Pickering Laboratories’ Artificial Perspiration is Formulated to Test Products for Colorfastness, Corrosion and Discoloration

Pickering Laboratories has developed reliable, reproducible and consistent artificial eccrine perspiration solutions for research and product testing. The Pickering Laboratories artificial eccrine perspiration is formulated to be universally standardize across all industries; it is the only formula that can satisfy all test challenges.

 

Bottles of Artificial Perspiration

We also offer industry specific Artificial Perspiration formulations and custom formulations.

Artificial Skin Surface Films

Perspiration is on everything we touch with our fingers or that comes into contact with our bodies. Sweat can react with materials and trigger allergies, or it can shorten product service life via corrosion or discoloration. Natural human perspiration has a complex composition that depends on the type of sweat gland, the person’s metabolism and hydration level. Pickering Laboratories’ human mimic artificial perspiration solutions are formulated based on published data for human sweat and provide the closest match to the “real thing” available on the market. These solutions are perfect for testing a variety of consumer products and medical devices as well as for forensics applications and as blanks for medical testing protocols.

Artificial Eccrine Perspiration

The Artificial Eccrine Perspiration we offer is a ready-to-use solution and is the closest mimic to true human eccrine sweat. It consists of nineteen amino acids, the seven most abundant minerals, and the four most abundant metabolites at a pH of 4.5. All concentrations closely match experimentally determined values for adult human eccrine sweat.

The stabilized solution is preserved with a fungicide and bactericide and can be stored at room temperature, while the non-stabilized product is stored frozen. Custom formulations at varying pH (2-9) can be made as either the stabilized or non-stabilized solutions.
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Artificial Sebum

Sebum is an oily secretion produced by sebaceous glands, which spreads over the hair and skin for waterproofing purposes. Pickering Laboratories manufactures an artificial sebum formulation according to ASTM designation D4265-14 or D4265-98. It is ready-to-use and provides the reliability, reproducibility and convenience needed for testing. This formulation can be used according to AATCC Standard Test Method 130-2010 for evaluating the efficacy of home laundry products and conditions to remove stains from fabric.

Artificial Apocrine Perspiration 

Apocrine sweat is secreted by apocrine glands located in the areas of the body with an abundance of hair follicles such as the scalp, armpits and groins. Apocrine sweat is initially sterile and odorless but when acted upon by bacteria it forms odorous compounds. Artificial Apocrine Perspiration was developed to mimic the composition of human apocrine sweat and contains several volatile fatty acids that are responsible for the unpleasant odor associated with it.

The ready-to-use solution is stored in a refrigerator and could be used for testing that requires the presence of malodor. It also could be used to culture bacteria that are commonly present on human skin.
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Eccrine Perspiration – Sebum Emulsion

Inspired by the ASTM D4265-98 method for staining, the emulsion uses 5% Artificial Sebum in Eccrine Perspiration. Oleic acid is added as an emulsifier. Prepared without dust/dirt for a more universal application, this emulsion mimics non-exercise induced skin surface film (SSFL). As SSFL, it can be used to test any topical use product or the stability of any article that will come in contact with human sweat. This product requires refrigeration to remain in solution and prevent rancidity.
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Corrosion Testing

Accelerated testing methods are a popular way of testing durability, by subjecting products to controlled conditions that are much more aggressive than normal conditions. For wearables that are in prolonged contact with human sweat, the main areas of concern are corrosion and colorfastness. Corrosion can lead to altering of the appearance or leaching of sensitizing chemicals, such as nickel and chromium, that cause allergic reactions. Salt, the main component in human sweat, increases water’s ability to speed up the corrosion process. Other factors that facilitate corrosion are the pH of the solution and presence of certain organic compounds such as lactic acid and sulfur-containing amino acids. Metals and alloys are not the only surfaces to be affected by corrosion. Organic coated surfaces, colored plastics or self-adhesive films in automotive interiors, spectacle frames and shoe leather are just a few of the multitude of surfaces also affected. Tarnishing, loss of gloss, shrinkage, cracking and discoloration could all be attributed to the corrosive effects of sweat on products and materials.

Nickel Release – BS EN 1811:2011 Artificial Perspiration

This pH 6.5 formulation is used to stimulate the release of Nickel from all post assemblies which are inserted into pierced ears and other pierced parts of the human body, and for articles intended to come into direct and prolonged contact with the skin. Spectacle frames and sunglasses are excluded from the scope of this European Standard. (Custom pH and stabilized versions available)

Corrosion Resistance for Gold Alloy – ISO 3160 Artificial Perspiration

This formulation is used to determine corrosion (tarnishing, oxidation and surface penetration) resistance for gold alloy coverings on watch cases and accessories, including bracelets when they are permanently attached to the case. The solution is at pH 4.7 per ISO 3160 specifications. (Custom pH and stabilized versions available)

For Testing Builders Hardware and Finishes – ANSI-BHMA A156.18 Artificial Perspiration

This artificial perspiration formulation is used to test finishes on various base materials as per the builder’s hardware association. This formulation is not offered in a stabilized format. (Custom pH available)

 

Chemical Resistance of Automotive Trim Materials and Components – GMW14334 Artificial Perspiration

Acid and alkaline perspiration solutions are formulated according to test procedure GMW14334 and they are designed to test chemical resistance of automotive trim materials and components.

Abrasion Resistance of Markings and Letterings Caused by Rubbing of Fingers and Hands – DIN EN 60068-2-70 & IEC 60068-2-70 Artificial Perspiration

This formulation is used to determine the resistance of markings and letterings on flat or curved surfaces against abrasion as it may occur by manually operating actuators and keyboards. This formulation can also be used to determine resistance against fluid contamination as it may occur under normal use.

Ophthalmic Optics – Spectacle Frames – ISO 12870 Artificial Perspiration

This solution is used to determine the resistance to perspiration of unglazed spectacle frames designed for use with all prescription lenses and also to rimless mounts, semi-rimless mounts and folding spectacle frames. This is also applicable to frames made from natural organic materials, but not to custom-made spectacle frames or to products designed specifically to provide personal eye protection.

Resistance to Grain Cracking, Area Loss, and Flexibility of Shoe Upper Leather – ASTM Method D2322-00 Artificial Perspiration

ASTM method D2322-00 determines the resistance to grain cracking, area loss, and flexibility of shoe upper leather to artificial perspiration. (Custom pH and stabilized versions available)

Buffered Sweat

The pH of the solution is an important consideration in product testing, affecting corrosion rate, level of color degradation and leaching of metals and organic components from wearable products. Many procedures require a tight pH range during testing. To accommodate these pH requirements and to improve pH stability over time, Pickering Laboratories is offering buffered versions of industry-specific artificial perspiration formulations. By adding a Phosphate buffer to the original formulation, the pH stability of the solution is greatly improved while its effect on corrosion and colorfastness remains unaffected.

Buffered DIN 53160, BS EN 1811:2011 Artificial Perspiration

Method DIN 53160-2:2010-10 specifies an artificial perspiration solution that is used to determine the colorfastness of articles for common use. This test establishes whether coloring on materials can migrate from the daily use articles to the skin. The test method is applicable to all articles of daily use, independent of the coloring procedure applied (dyeing, staining or coating). Method BS EN 1811:2011 is used for the testing of nickel release from jewelries and other products that come with prolonged contact with skin. The primary perspiration components and pH described by methods BS EN 1811:2011 and DIN 53160-2:2010-10 are the same, now Pickering Laboratories is offering a buffered version of the original formulations. Phosphate ions do not affect color migration rates nor the rate of nickel release, so these modified formulations can be used for the same tests. The buffered formulation is offered at pH 6.5, specified by DIN 53160 and BS EN 1811:2011 methods, as well as at custom pH by customer request. Stabilized formulations contain a preservative to prevent bacteria growth and can be stored at room temperature.

 

Colorfastness Testing

Colorfastness is one of the most important concerns in the textile industry. Discoloration of fabric can be due to perspiration, light, rubbing or a combination of all three. Salt, urea and lactic acid present in sweat can disrupt the bonding that dyes form with the fabric fibers, causing fading of the color. In addition, amino acids in sweat can attach to fabric to produce “protein stains”. Use of nanotechnology to endow new properties to textiles, such as antibacterial or UV protection, water repellency or flame retardancy, together with incorporating sensors and other digital components, creates the need to consider the effects of sweat on nanoparticles leaching and corrosion of integrated circuits as well.

AATCC Test Method 15 and Test Method 125 Artificial Perspiration

COLORFASTNESS OF FABRIC TO PERSPIRATION OR TO A COMBINATION OF LIGHT AND PERSPIRATION

This pH 4.3 solution is used to determine the colorfastness of textiles to the effects of acid perspiration according to Test Method 15. The same formulation is also used to determine colorfastness to a combination of light and perspiration according to Test Method 125. It is applicable to dyed, printed or otherwise colored textile fibers, yarns and fabrics of all kinds. This formulation can also be used for the testing of dyestuffs as applied to textiles. (Custom pH and stabilized versions available)

ISO 105-B07 and ISO 105-E04 Artificial Perspiration

COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILES TO EITHER A COMBINATION OF LIGHT AND PERSPIRATION OR JUST PERSPIRATION

These test solutions are for all kinds of textiles and textiles in all forms. Textiles are wetted with either the acidic or alkaline solution to test the combined effect of perspiration solution and exposure to light according to ISO 105-B07, and to perspiration only according to ISO 105-E04. The pH of the acidic solution is 5.5 and that of the alkaline solution is 8.0.

 

ISO 11641 Artificial Perspiration

This formulation determines colorfastness to perspiration of leather at all stages of processing, particularly to gloving, clothing and lining leathers, and uppers of unlined shoes. This alkaline perspiration has a greater effect on the color of leather and is used to simulate
the most demanding conditions.

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