Pickering Laboratories White Papers
By Michael Pickering, Ph.D., Pickering Laboratories
Testing laboratories are essential to economic growth. A rapidly developing global economy requires reproducibility. Eccrine perspiration can react with consumer products to cause health problem and reduce service life. There are many product tests that require artificial perspiration mixtures, but these mixtures don’t always approximate natural perspiration and none contain amino acids. Artificial perspiration is used to test bankcards, textiles, jewelry, leather, coating, fingerprint identification chemistry and many others. Analysis of natural perspiration can be used to produce an accurate artificial perspiration. Automating perspiration tests using an accurate perspiration mixture gives reproducibly.
ISO 3160-2:2003 — Watch-cases and Accessories — Gold Alloy Coverings — Part 2: Determination of Fineness, Thickness, Corrosion Resistance and Adhesion
ISO 3160-2:2003 specifies methods to determine fineness, thickness, corrosion resistance and adhesion for gold alloy coverings on watch-cases and accessories, including bracelets when they are permanently attached to the case.
The tests apply only to significant surfaces.
ISO 3160-2:2003 applies to all gold alloy coverings specified in ISO 3160-1.
To learn more, go to: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=31209
ISO 105-B07 : 2009 — Textiles – Tests for Colour Fastness –
Part B07: Colour Fastness to Light of Textiles Wetted with Artificial Perspiration
ISO 105-B07:2009 specifies a method for determining the resistnace of the colour of texiles, of all kinds and in all forms, to the combined effect of wetting with acid or alkaline artificial perspiration solutions and an artificial lights source representing natural daylight.
Developed in 1949 by AATCC Committee RA52; Transferred to Committee RA23 in 2006
Purpose and Scope
This test method is used to determine the fastness of colored textiles to the effects of acid perspiration. It is applicable to dyed, printed or otherwise colored textile fibers, yarns and fabrics of all kinds and to the testing of dyestuffs as applied to textiles. 1.2 Work by Committee RA52 showed this test will correlate with limited field studies. Prior to this there were acid and alkaline tests, however, as a result of these studies the alkaline test was eliminated.
A specimen of colored textile in contact with other fiber materials (for color transfer) is wet out in simulated acid perspiration solution, subjected to a fixed mechanical pressure and allowed to dry slowly at a slightly elevated temperature. After conditioning, the specimen is evaluated for color change and the other fiber materials are evaluated for color transfer.
To learn more, go to: http://www.aatcc.org/technical/test_methods/scopes/tm15.cfm
DIN EN ISO 12870:2012 — Ophthalmic Optics – Spectacle Frames – Requirements and Test Methods (ISO 12870:2012); German Version EN ISO 12870:2012 (Foreign Standard)
Specification of fundamental requirements and test methods for unglazed spectacle frames. The standard is intended to be harmonized against EU Directive 93/42/EEC for spectacle frames used for prescription spectacles. The standard does not apply to custom-made spectacle frames and to products specifically desiged for use in eye protective devices.*This standard contains fundamental requirements for unglazed spectacle frames designed for use with all prescription lenses. It is not applicable to complete custom-made spectacle frames and to products designed specifically to provide personal eye protection. The standard has been prepared under a mandate to concretize the essential requirements of EU Directive 93/42/EEC (Directive on medical devices). Many modifications of thecontents have been made with respect to the July 2009 edition, amongst others the requirements for the physiological compatibility have been modified and rendered more precise; specifications related to the measurement (and thus: to the associated dimensional tolerances) of the length of side for sides without a hinged joint have been modified; the requirements related to the resistance to perspiration of spectacle frames made from natural materials have been rendered more precise; the specifications related to the container have been modified and the requirements for the resistance to perspiration test have been
To learn more, go to: http://webstore.ansi.org/RecordDetail.aspx?sku=DIN+EN+ISO+12870%3A2012
ISO 11640:2012 (IULTCS/IUF 450) — Leather — Tests for Colour Fastness — Colour Fastness to Cycles of To-and-Fro Rubbing
The principle of the method specified is rubbing one side of the leather to be tested with pieces of reference wool felt under a given pressure for a given number of forward and backward motions, assessing the change in colour of the pieces of felt and of the leather with the grey scales. Any other visible change in or damage to the surface of the leather is also reported.
DIN 53160-1 and DIN 53160-2 — Determination of the Colourfastness of Articles for Common Use –
Parts 1 and 2 Tests with Artificial Saliva and Artificial Sweat
DIN 53160 is divided into two parts, specifying methods to test the colourfastness of articles to artificial saliva and artificial sweat, respectively.
The method specified in Part 1 is suitable for use on articles intended, or liable, to be taken into the mouth, whereas Part 2 is particularly suitable for those articles that are intended (or may) to come into contact with the skin.
The standards do not apply to articles that are intended to come into contact with foodstuffs or to articles or whose function is the release of colouring materials (such as wax crayons). The two test methods are applicable independent of the colouring procedure applied (e.g. dyeing, staining, coating). Possible mechanical wear (e.g. exposure of a coloured layer after mechanical abrasion of a finishing coat) is not taken into account.
To learn more, go to: http://www.beuth.de/en/article/din53160-1-2
AFNOR-NF-S-91-141 — Biodegradability of Dental Metal Alloys – Standardization of Electrochemical Tests
Artificial Saliva Artificial Saliva is prepared according to AFNOR NF S91- 141 standard procedure and is intended for testing biodegradability of dental metal alloys. The formulation consists of two parts that are mixed right before use. This minimizes changes in the solution during storage and allows for a longer shelf life. The pH of the solution after mixing is 7.8 +/- 0.1. The Artificial Saliva should be stored refrigerated both before and after mixing. Premixed, ready-to-use solution is available upon request..
To learn more, go to: http://www.standardcenter.org/38713-AFNOR-NF-S-91-141-pdf.html
FUSAYAMA / MEYER ARTIFICIAL SALIVA — Electrochemical Behavior and pH Stability of Artificial Salivas for Corrosion Tests.
It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.
To read more, go to: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17710285?dopt=Abstract